Cracow and Golden Age
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's ZÅ‚oty Wiek or Golden Age. Many works of Polish Renaissance art and architecture were created, including ancient synagogues in KrakÃ³w's Jewish quarter located in the north-eastern part of Kazimierz, such as the Old Synagogue. During the reign of Casimir IV, various artists came to work and live in KrakÃ³w, and Johann Haller established a printing press in the city after Kasper Straube had printed the Calendarium Cracoviense, the first work printed in Poland, in 1473.
In 1520, the most famous church bell in Poland, named Zygmunt after Sigismund I of Poland, was cast by Hans Behem. At that time, Hans DÃ¼rer, a younger brother of artist and thinker Albrecht DÃ¼rer, was Sigismund's court painter. Hans von Kulmbach made altarpieces for several churches. In 1553, the Kazimierz district council gave the Jewish Qahal a licence for the right to build their own interior walls across the western section of the already existing defensive walls. The walls were expanded again in 1608 due to the growth of the community and influx of Jews from Bohemia. In 1572, King Sigismund II, the last of the Jagiellons, died childless. The Polish throne passed to Henry III of France and then to other foreign-based rulers in rapid succession, causing a decline in the city's importance that was worsened by pillaging during the Swedish invasion and by an outbreak of bubonic plague that left 20,000 of the city's residents dead. In 1596, Sigismund III of the Swedish House of Vasa moved the administrative capital of the Polish?Lithuanian Commonwealth from KrakÃ³w to Warsaw
Ways of getting around Cracow for tourists
Tourists can move around Cracow in several different ways. At small distances can simply walk, and larger sections are driven around by coach. After , you can also navigate using the trams, which have several lines and thus allow you to reach many places of city. Currently there are also light rail tunnel and a water tram ride which may be for many tourists an added attraction. A good complement to Cracow tram lines is extensive bus service, running on the system day and night, and faster and supportive. An additional motivation for the authorities cracked for expanding the public transport network is also a presence in this city of many students, including foreign.
Cracow - climate
KrakÃ³w has an oceanic climate (Cfb) according to the KÃ¶ppen climate classification system, one of the easternmost localities in Europe to do so. A mere 100 km (62 mi) north-east of KrakÃ³w (east of TarnÃ³w, and north of Kielce), the January mean dips below ?3 Â°C (27 Â°F) and thus becomes continental (Dfb) in nature. The KrakÃ³w climate is also influenced by its far inland position, with significant temperature differences between seasons. Average temperatures in summer range from 18 to 19.6 Â°C (64 to 67 Â°F) and in winter from ?2.0 to ?0.6 Â°C (28 to 31 Â°F). The average annual temperature is 8.7 Â°C (48 Â°F). In summer temperatures often exceed 25 Â°C (77 Â°F), and even 30 Â°C (86 Â°F), while winter drops to ?5 Â°C (23 Â°F) at night and about 0 Â°C (32 Â°F) at day; during very cold nights the temperature can drop to ?15 Â°C (5 Â°F). Since KrakÃ³w lies near the Tatra Mountains, there are often occurrences of halny blowing (a foehn wind), causing temperatures to rise rapidly, and even in winter reach up to 20 Â°C (68 Â°F).